SQL Server Working Copy

In order to use a Microsoft SQL Server working copy, you need to have a SQL Server running. SQL Server 2016 and later is officially supported by Kart (SQL Server 2012 and later are largely compatible but not officially supported).

You also need to have the Microsoft ODBC Driver for SQL Server installed on your system and working properly. This can be tested by connecting to your SQL Server database using the sqlcmd utility - see the ODBC Driver section to troubleshoot.

SQL Server partitioning

SQL Server databases are designed so that they can be used for multiple apps simultaneously without those apps interfering with each other - they have multiple levels of data separation.

  • A SQL Server contains one or more named databases. When a user connects to the server, they must specify up front which database they need, and then they can only access data in this database.

  • A single database contains one or more named schemas, which in turn contain tables. A user connected to the database can query tables in any schema they have access-rights to without starting a new connection. Two tables can have the same name, as long as they are in different schemas.

So SQL Server has a partition called a “schema” - the name can be confusing as “schema” can also have other meanings, but in this case it means a namespace. A Kart SQL Server working copy can share a server or a database with any other app, but it expects to be given its own schema to manage (just as Kart expects to manage its own GPKG working copy, not share it with data from other apps). Managing the schema means that Kart is responsible for initialising that schema and importing the data in its initial state, then keeping track of any edits made to that data so that they can be committed. Kart expects that the user will use some other application to modify the data in that schema as part of making edits to a Kart working copy.

SQL Server Connection URI

A Kart repository with a SQL Server working copy needs to be configured with a mssql:// connection URI. This URI contains how to connect to the server, the name of the database to connect to (which can be shared with other apps), and the name of the schema that should be managed as a working copy by this Kart repository.

Kart needs a connection URL in the following format:


For example, a Kart repo called airport might have a URL like the following:


To configure a Kart repository to use a particular SQL Server schema as its working copy, specify the --workingcopy flag when creating the repository, for example:

kart init --workingcopy=mssql://... --import=...

The schema that Kart is given to manage should be either non-existent or empty at the time Kart is configured, but the server and database should already exist.

The database user needs to have full rights to modify objects in the specified schema. (eg: via GRANT CONTROL ON SCHEMA airport_kart TO kart_user;).

Kart limitations - Geometry and Geography types

SQL Server has two different spatial data types, called Geometry and Geography. See the SQL Server spatial data types documentation. Kart only has one spatial data type, called geography. At present, Kart geography data is always written to the working copy in a SQL Server Geography column, but a future release of Kart will give the user the option to configure if they want Geometry or Geography. The SQL Server Geometry type treats geometries as if they lie on a flat plane (rather than on the ellipsoidal surface of the Earth), so using SQL Server functions such as STDistance or STArea that calculate distance or area of the geometries will not give the real-world answer if the geometries describe features on the surface of the Earth. Although the appropriate CRS ID remains attached to each Geometry instance, SQL Server doesn’t use it at all to do these flat-plane geometry calculations.

If you need to use SQL Server’s Geography functions on data in your Kart working copy so that the calculations give the correct answers as modeled on the ellipsoidal surface of the Earth, you can convert the Geometry instances to Geography instance before doing the calculations. For instance, instead of executing the following query to find the area of features in column geom:

SELECT geom.STArea() FROM my_table;`

you would instead execute a query that first converts to Geography:

SELECT geography::STGeomFromWKB(geom.STAsBinary(), 4326).STArea() FROM my_table;`

SQL Server limitations

Almost all geospatial data can be converted to SQL Server format without losing any fidelity, but it does have the following limitations.

Approximated types

There is one type that Kart supports that has no SQL Server equivalent - the interval. This type is approximated as NVARCHAR in the SQL Server working copy. See Approximated types for more information.

Unconstrained geometry types

Kart lets you define a column as containing only a particular type of geometry, eg only POINT or only MULTIPOLYGON types. By contrast, SQL Server lets you put any type of geometry into a geometry column.

This mismatch has the following consequence: If Kart is managing a geometry column with a particular geometry type such as POINT, and you check it out in a SQL Server working copy, you will be able to insert other types of geometry into it, but Kart will prevent you from committing it. You still need to follow the constraint put in place when the dataset was created, and only insert new geometries of the appropriate type.

If you need decide that a certain dataset should contain more types of geometries than its constraint currently allows, it is possible to change a columns geometry type to be broader and allow more types. This cannot be done by editing the SQL Server working copy, since as noted it doesn’t store this type information - instead it must be done using either a different type of working copy, or the Kart command line tool. To use the command line, take the following steps:

  1. View all the metadata for your dataset: kart meta get DATASET

  2. Copy the JSON from under the heading schema.json and save it to a file of the same name in your current working directory.

  3. Modify the JSON so that the geometryType property is broader. For example:

    • Old line: "geometryType": "POINT",

    • New line: "geometryType": "GEOMETRY",

  4. Commit this change to the schema: kart meta set DATASET schema.json=@schema.json

CRS definitions

Kart lets you define arbitrary CRS definitions and attach them to your dataset. By contrast, SQL Server comes pre-installed with hundreds of standard EPSG coordinate reference system definitions. However, these cannot be modified, and custom CRS cannot be added.

This mismatch has the following consequence: the only part of the CRS that Kart is tracking that can be written to a SQL Server working copy is the numeric part of the CRS authority code (referred to in SQL Server documentation as the spatial_reference_id or SRID). This code will be embedded in each geometry.

Since SQL Server has support for a limited number of CRS, it is possible that the SRID associated with your geometry will not be one that SQL Server recognizes. However, this is of very little consequence since SQL Server doesn’t make much use of the SRID for the Geometry type (as opposed to Geography type), and Kart working copies currently only contain Geometry types. See the SQL Server documentation. It is much more important to make sure that the application you use to view and edit your SQL Server working copy is able to extract and understand the CRS code and so display the data correctly.

It is possible to modify the CRS definition attached to a particular geometry column by editing the code embedded in every geometry in that column. This change can be committed as long as the new CRS you have chosen is one that is built into SQL Server.

ODBC Driver

You need to have the Microsoft ODBC Driver for SQL Server installed on your system and working properly in order for Kart to use a SQL Server working copy - Kart will not install this for you. That the driver is installed and working correctly can be verified by using the sqlcmd utility to connect to your SQL Server database. Here are some possible issues - the error message from Kart or sqlcmd will help you diagnose the issue:

  • The ODBC Driver for SQL Server is not installed at all. To remedy, visit the Microsoft ODBC Driver for SQL Server and follow the instructions for your system.

  • The ODBC Driver on your system is not compatible with the version of OpenSSL on your system. Try installing the latest version of both the driver and of OpenSSL.

  • The ODBC Driver won’t connect to your SQL Server instance because you have a self-signed certificate. This happens on more recent versions of ODBC Driver for SQL Server. For publicly accessible databases you will generally want your certificate properly signed by a third-party certificate authority. You can learn more about this in the SQL Server documentation. However, to force Kart to circumvent this requirement, you can append the query ?TrustServerCertificate=yes to the connection URI. To force sqlcmd to circumvent this requirement, you just need to add the -C option at the commandline.